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Zmierzamy w kierunku trwałej ludzkiej obecności na Marsie

Łazik marsjański Wytrwałość wyrusza w poszukiwaniu oznak życia – i przygotowuje się na ludzką przyszłość na Marsie. 

 

Obrazek pochodzi ze strony NASA

Mars 2020 Rover Perseverance przygotowuje się do wyruszenia w misję poszukiwania życia, pierwszą z wielu misji polegającą na zwracaniu próbek z Marsa na Ziemię. Jest to plan statku kosmicznego, który zabierze ludzi w obie strony, między Ziemią i Marsem w kilku misjach, ostatecznie prowadząc do trwałej obecności ludzi na powierzchni planety.

Próbki, które zbierze Łazik Wytrwałość  będą miały kluczowe znaczenie dla badań naukowych o wysokim priorytecie, dotyczących życia drobnoustrojów. Pozwolą również planistom misji ludzkiej zrozumieć mechaniczne właściwości marsjańskiego pyłu, brudu, skał i minerałów. Jakie mają właściwości ścierne, ich potencjał utleniający, rozmiar i kształt cząstek. Informacje te pokażą potencjalne zagrożenia dla zdrowia ludzi: toksyczność, problem z oddychaniem i potencjalne zagrożenia biologiczne jakiegokolwiek życia mikrobiologicznego na Marsie. Dane te pomogą opracować strategie mające na celu ochronę odkrywców Marsa. Analiza minerałów w zwracanych próbkach może również mieć bezpośredni wpływ na zrozumienie, jakie naturalne zasoby mineralne są potencjalnie dostępne do wykorzystania przez ludzi na Marsie.

Celem Wytrwałości jest zgromadze wiedzy umożliwiającej bezpieczne dotarcie na powierzchnię Marsa, życie i prace na tej planecie oraz powrót do domu na Ziemię.

Aeroshell Mars 2020

Aeroshell Mars 2020, który chroni łazik podczas podróży, zawiera czujniki, które pokażą, jak statek kosmiczny się nagrzewa i zachowuje podczas wejścia w marsjańską atmosferę. Informacje te pomogą inżynierom ulepszyć projekty lądowań dla załogi i lądowników towarowych niezbędnych do misji ludzkich. Podczas zniżania łazik zaprezentuje nowy autonomiczny system prowadzenia o nazwie Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN). Ten system unikania zagrożeń może łączyć sygnały nawigacyjne i inne technologie, które wspierają lądowanie dużych ładunków przed ludźmi, a także ewentualne pilotowane lądowania pojazdów z załogą.

Łazik ze specjalnym płucem

Mars jest ekstremalnym środowiskiem, ale Łazik Wytrwałość wykorzysta go w pełni. Łazik ma „płuco”, które będzie wytwarzać tlen z atmosfery dwutlenku węgla Marsa. Będzie to demonstracja sposobu przetwarzania zasobów naturalnych na Marsie do użytku przez ludzi. Duże ilości tlenu będą potrzebne do wytworzenia gazu pędnego („paliwa rakietowego”) podczas podróży powrotnej astronautów do domu na Ziemię, a także w celu zapewnienia zapasów tlenu dla oddychającego powietrza.

Również będzie monitorować, jak marsjański pył w atmosferze oddziałuje z maszynami, aby ulepszyć przyszłe projekty inżynieryjne. Nowe funkcje monitorowania pogody Perseverance specjalnie zaprojektowane pokażą związki między pyłem a pogodą w okresach marsjańskich. Pomoże to zaprojektować lepsze schrony dla astronautów, a także sprzęt, który musi działać przez lata w środowisku marsjańskim.

Łazik pomoże w doborze skafandra

Odkrywcy wyruszający na Marsa będą potrzebować skafandrów, które są wystarczająco mocne, aby wytrzymać żywioły, ale wystarczająco elastyczne, aby poruszać się zręcznie. Wytrwałość przenosi pięć próbek różnych materiałów skafandra kosmicznego, aby zobaczyć, jak każda z nich zachowuje się w długich ekspozycjach na promieniowanie i pył.

Podczas eksploracji robotowi towarzysze prawdopodobnie dołączą do załogi, aby udoskonalić swoje badania naukowe i pomóc im zachować bezpieczeństwo. Sprawdzą miejsca zbyt strome lub zbyt niebezpieczne dla ludzi.

Łazik Wytrwałość będzie penetrował ziemię i szukał zasobów wody.

Wytrwałość ma radar penetrujący ziemię na powierzchni Marsa. Podobne systemy wylądują w potencjalnej bazie ludzkiej przed przybywającymi ludźmi, aby poszukać cennych zasobów wody znalezionych w lodzie pod powierzchnią wody. Tak jak możemy wydobywać cenne zasoby z marsjańskiej atmosfery, tak lód wodny na Marsie może być przetwarzany w celu wytworzenia wodoru, kolejnego kluczowego składnika paliwa potrzebnego do wystrzelenia z Marsa z powrotem na Ziemię.

Będzie w stanie skalibrować swój radar z wynikami Perseverance, pomagając upewnić się, że zasoby są naprawdę dostępne i dostępne przed przybyciem ludzi. Obserwacja struktury podpowierzchniowych warstw skalnych zapewni również, że grunt pod powierzchnią jest wystarczająco stabilny do lądowania ciężkich ładunków klasy ludzkiej- siedlisko podtrzymujące życie, oraz do budowy platformy startowej i innej infrastruktury potrzebnej ludzkim odkrywcom.

Źródło: NASA

 

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